Laboratory Terms B

A glossary of science, chemistry, environmental and laboratory terms.

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99 results match your search term:  B


Back Pressure
A pressure that can cause water to backflow into the water supply when a user...

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Backflow
A reverse flow condition created by a difference in water pressures that caus...

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Background Level
1. The concentration of a substance in an environmental media (air, water, or...

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Backwashing
Reversing the flow of water back through the filter media to remove entrapped...

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Backyard Composting
Diversion of organic food waste and yard trimmings from the municipal waste s...

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BACT Best Available Control Technology
An emission limitation based on the maximum degree of emission reduction (con...

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Bactericide
A pesticide used to control or destroy bacteria, typically in the home, schoo...

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Baffle
A flat board or plate, deflector, guide, or similar device constructed or pla...

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Baffle Chamber
In incinerator design, a chamber designed to promote the settling of fly ash ...

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Baghouse Filter
Large fabric bag, usually made of glass fibers, used to eliminate intermediat...

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Bailer
A pipe with a valve at the lower end, used to remove slurry from the bottom o...

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Baling
Compacting solid waste into blocks to reduce volume and simplify handling.

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Ballistic Separator
A machine that sorts organic from inorganic matter for composting.

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Band Application
The spreading of chemicals over, or next to, each row of plants in a field.

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Banking
A system for recording qualified air emission reductions for later use in bub...

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Bar Screen
In wastewater treatment, a device used to remove large solids.

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Barrel Sampler
Open-ended steel tube used to collect soil samples.

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Barrier Coating
A layer of a material that obstructs or prevents passage of something through...

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Basal Application
In pesticides, the application of a chemical on plant stems or tree trunks ju...

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Basalt
Consistent year-round energy use of a facility; also refers to the minimum am...

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Bean Sheet
Common term for a pesticide data package record.

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Bed Load
Sediment particles resting on or near the channel bottom that are pushed or r...

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BEN
EPA's computer model for analyzing a violator's economic gain from not comply...

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Bench-scale Tests
Laboratory testing of potential cleanup technologies

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Benefit-Cost Analysis
An economic method for assessing the benefits and costs of achieving alternat...

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Benthic
An organism that feeds on the sediment at the bottom of a water body such as ...

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Bentonite
A colloidal clay, expansible when moist, commonly used to provide a tight sea...

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Beryllium
An metal hazardous to human health when inhaled as an airborne pollutant. It ...

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Best Available Control Measures BACM
A term used to refer to the most effective measures (according to EPA guidanc...

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Best Available Control Technology BACT
For any specific source, the currently available technology producing the gre...

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Best Demonstrated Available Technology BDAT
As identified by EPA, the most effective commercially available means of trea...

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Best Management Practice BMP
Methods that have been determined to be the most effective, practical means o...

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Bimetal
Beverage containers with steel bodies and aluminum tops; handled differently ...

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Bioaccumulants
Substances that increase in concentration in living organisms as they take in...

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Bioaccumulation
Bioaccumulation is a general term for the accumulation of substances, such as...

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Bioassay
A test to determine te relative strength of a substance by comparing its effe...

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Bioavailabiliity
Degree of ability to be absorbed and ready to interact in organism metabolism.

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Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD
A measure of the amount of oxygen consumed in the biological processes that b...

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Bioconcentration
The accumulation of a chemical in tissues of a fish or other organism to leve...

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Biodegradable
Capable of decomposing under natural conditions.

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Biodiversity
Refers to the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecologic...

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Biological Contaminants
Living organisms or derivates (e.g. viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and ...

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Biological Control
In pest control, the use of animals and organisms that eat or otherwise kill ...

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Biological Integrity
The ability to support and maintain balanced, integrated, functionality in th...

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Biological Magnification
Refers to the process whereby certain substances such as pesticides or heavy ...

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Biological Measurement
A measurement taken in a biological medium. For exposure assessment, it is re...

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Biological Medium
One of the major component of an organism; e.g. blood, fatty tissue, lymph no...

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Biological Oxidation
Decomposition of complex organic materials by microorganisms. Occurs in self-...

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Biological Oxygen Demand BOD
An indirect measure of the concentration of biologically degradable material ...

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Biological pesticides
Certain microorganism, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa that ...

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Biological Stressors
Organisms accidentally or intentionally dropped into habitats in which they d...

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Biological Treatment
A treatment technology that uses bacteria to consume organic waste.

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Biologically Effective Dose
The amount of a deposited or absorbed compound reaching the cells or target s...

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Biologicals
Vaccines, cultures and other preparations made from living organisms and thei...

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Biomass
All of the living material in a given area; often refers to vegetation.

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Biome
Entire community of living organisms in a single major ecological area.

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Biomonitoring
1. The use of living organisms to test the suitability of effluents for disch...

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Bioremediation
Use of living organisms to clean up oil spills or remove other pollutants fro...

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Biosensor
Analytical device comprising a biological recognition element (e.g. enzyme, r...

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Biosphere
The portion of Earth and its atmosphere that can support life.

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Biostabilizer
A machine that converts solid waste into compost by grinding and aeration.

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Biota
The animal and plant life of a given region.

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Biotechnology
Techniques that use living organisms or parts of organisms to produce a varie...

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Biotic Community
A naturally occurring assemblage of plants and animals that live in the same ...

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Biotransformation
Conversion of a substance into other compounds by organisms; includes biodegr...

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Blackwater
Water that contains animal, human, or food waste.

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Blood Products
Any product derived from human blood, including but not limited to blood plas...

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Bloom
A proliferation of algae and/or higher aquatic plants in a body of water; oft...

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BOD5
The amount of dissolved oxygen consumed in five days by biological processes ...

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Body Burden
The amount of a chemical stored in the body at a given time, especially a pot...

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Bog
A type of wetland that accumulates appreciable peat deposits. Bogs depend pri...

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Boiler
A vessel designed to transfer heat produced by combustion or electric resista...

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Boom
1. A floating device used to contain oil on a body of water. 2. A piece of eq...

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Borehole
Hole made with drilling equipment.

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Botanical Pesticide
A pesticide whose active ingredient is a plant-produced chemical such as nico...

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Bottle Bill
Proposed or enacted legislation which requires a returnable deposit on beer o...

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Bottom Ash
The non-airborne combustion residue from burning pulverized coal in a boiler;...

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Bottom Land Hardwoods
Forested freshwater wetlands adjacent to rivers in the southeastern United St...

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Bounding Estimate
An estimate of exposure, dose, or risk that is higher than that incurred by t...

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Brackish
Mixed fresh and salt water.

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Breakpoint Chlorination
Addition of chlorine to water until the chlorine demand has been satisfied.

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Breakthrough
A crack or break in a filter bed that allows the passage of floc or particula...

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Breathing Zone
Area of air in which an organism inhales.

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Brine Mud
Waste material, often associated with well-drilling or mining, composed of mi...

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British Thermal Unit
Unit of heat energy equal to the amount of heat required to raise the tempera...

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Broadcast Application
The spreading of pesticides over an entire area.

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Bromoform
Bromoform is one of the trihalomethanes closely related with fluoroform, chlo...

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Brownfields
Abandoned, idled, or under used industrial and commercial facilities/sites wh...

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Bubble
A system under which existing emissions sources can propose alternate means t...

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Buffer
A solution or liquid whose chemical makeup is such that it minimizes changes ...

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Buffer Strips
Strips of grass or other erosion-resisting vegetation between or below cultiv...

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Building Cooling Load
The hourly amount of heat that must be removed from a building to maintain in...

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Building Envelope
The exterior surface of a building's construction--the walls, windows, floors...

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Building Related Illness
Diagnosable illness whose cause and symptoms can be directly attributed to a ...

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Bulk Sample
A small portion (usually thumbnail size) of a suspect asbestos-containing bui...

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Bulky Waste
Large items of waste materials, such as appliances, furniture, large auto par...

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Burial Ground
A disposal site for radioactive waste materials that uses earth or water as a...

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Buy-Back Center
Facility where individuals or groups bring reyclables in return for payment.

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By-product
Material, other than the principal product, generated as a consequence of an ...

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