Laboratory Terms C

A glossary of science, chemistry, environmental and laboratory terms.

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200 results match your search term:  C


Cadmium Cd
A heavy metal that accumulates in the environment.

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Cancellation
Refers to Section 6 (b) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide...

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Cap
A layer of clay, or other impermeable material installed over the top of a cl...

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Capacity Assurance Plan
A statewide plan which supports a state's ability to manage the hazardous was...

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Capillary Action
Movement of water through very small spaces due to molecular forces called ca...

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Capillary Fringe
The zone above he water table within which the porous medium is saturated by ...

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Capture Efficiency
The fraction of organic vapors generated by a process that are directed to an...

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Carbon Absorber
An add-on control device that uses activated carbon to absorb volatile organi...

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Carbon Adsorption
A treatment system that removes contaminants from ground water or surface wat...

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Carbon Monoxide CO
A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete fossil fuel combu...

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Carbon Tetrachloride CC14
Compound consisting of one carbon atom ad four chlorine atoms, once widely us...

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Carboxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin in which the iron is bound to carbon monoxide(CO) instead of oxygen.

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Carcinogen
Any substance that can cause or aggravate cancer.

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Carrier
1.The inert liquid or solid material in a pesticide product that serves as a ...

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Carrying Capacity
1. In recreation management, the amount of use a recreation area can sustain ...

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CAS Registration Number
A number assigned by the Chemical Abstract Service to identify a chemical.

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Case Study
A brief fact sheet providing risk, cost, and performance information on alter...

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Cask
A thick-walled container (usually lead) used to transport radioactive materia...

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Catalyst
A substance that changes the speed or yield of a chemical reaction without be...

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Catalytic Converter
An air pollution abatement device that removes pollutants from motor vehicle ...

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Catalytic Incinerator
A control device that oxidizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by using a c...

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Categorical Exclusion
A class of actions which either individually or cumulatively would not have a...

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Categorical Pretreatment Standard
A technology-based effluent limitation for an industrial facility discharging...

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Cathodic Protection
A technique to prevent corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode ...

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Cavitation
The formation and collapse of gas pockets or bubbles on the blade of an impel...

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Cells
1. In solid waste disposal, holes where waste is dumped, compacted, and cover...

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Cementitious
Densely packed and nonfibrous friable materials.

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Central Collection Point
Location were a generator of regulated medical waste consolidates wastes orig...

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Centrifugal Collector
A mechanical system using centrifugal force to remove aerosols from a gas str...

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CERCLIS
The federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

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Channelization
Straightening and deepening streams so water will move faster, a marsh-draina...

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Characteristic
Any one of the four categories used in defining hazardous waste

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Characterization of Ecological Effects
Part of ecological risk assessment that evaluates ability of a stressor to ca...

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Characterization of Exposure
Portion of an ecological risk assessment that evaluates interaction of a stre...

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Check-Valve Tubing Pump
Water sampling tool also referred to as a water Pump.

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Chemical Case
For purposes of review and regulation, the grouping of chemically similar pes...

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Chemical Compound
A distinct and pure substance formed by the union or two or more elements in ...

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Chemical Element
A fundamental substance comprising one kind of atom; the simplest form of mat...

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Chemical Oxygen Demand COD
A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all compounds, both organic and i...

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Chemical Stressors
Chemicals released to the environment through industrial waste, auto emission...

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Chemical Treatment
Any one of a variety of technologies that use chemicals or a variety of chemi...

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Chemnet
Mutual aid network of chemical shippers and contractors that assigns a contra...

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Chemosterilant
A chemical that controls pests by preventing reproduction.

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Chemtrec
The industry-sponsored Chemical Transportation Emergency Center; provides inf...

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Child Resistant Packaging CRP
Packaging that protects children or adults from injury or illness resulting f...

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Chiller
A device that generates a cold liquid that is circulated through an air-handl...

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Chilling Effect
The lowering of the Earth's temperature because of increased particles in the...

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Chinese Drywall
The term Chinese drywall refers to drywall manufactured in China and imported...

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Chisel Plowing
Preparing croplands by using a special implement that avoids complete inversi...

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Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
1. Chemicals containing only chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen. These include a ...

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Chlorinated Solvent
An organic solvent containing chlorine atoms(e.g. methylene chloride and 1,1,...

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Chlorination
The application of chlorine to drinking water, sewage, or industrial waste to...

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Chlorinator
A device that adds chlorine, in gas or liquid form, to water or sewage to kil...

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Chlorine-Contact Chamber
That part of a water treatment plant where effluent is disinfected by chlorine.

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Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs
A family of inert, nontoxic, and easily liquefied chemicals used in refrigera...

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Chlorophenoxy
A class of herbicides that may be found in domestic water supplies and cause ...

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Chlorosis
Discoloration of normally green plant parts caused by disease, lack of nutrie...

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CHNOS
Stands for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.

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Cholinesterase
An enzyme found in animals that regulates nerve impulses by the inhibition of...

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Chronic Effect
An adverse effect on a human or animal in which symptoms recur frequently or ...

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Chronic Exposure
Multiple exposures occurring over an extended period of time or over a signif...

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Chronic Toxicity
The capacity of a substance to cause long-term poisonous health effects in hu...

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Circle of Influence
The circular outer edge of a depression produced in the water table by the pu...

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Cistern
Small tank or storage facility used to store water for a home or farm; often ...

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Clarification
Clearing action that occurs during wastewater treatment when solids settle ou...

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Clarifier
A tank in which solids settle to the bottom and are subsequently removed as s...

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Class I Area
Under the Clean Air Act. a Class I area is one in which visibility is protect...

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Class I Substance
One of several groups of chemicals with an ozone depletion potential of 0.2 o...

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Class II Substance
A substance with an ozone depletion potential of less than 0.2. All HCFCs are...

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Clay Soil
Soil material containing more than 40 percent clay, less than 45 percent sand...

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Clean Coal Technology
Any technology not in widespread use prior to the Clean Air Act Amendments of...

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Clean Fuels
Blends or substitutes for gasoline fuels, including compressed natural gas, m...

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Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment
A document that systematically evaluates the relative risk, performance, and ...

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Cleanup
Actions taken to deal with a release or threat of release of a hazardous subs...

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Clear Cut
Harvesting all the trees in one area at one time, a practice that can encoura...

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Clear Well
A reservoir for storing filtered water of sufficient quantity to prevent the ...

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Climate Change
The term 'climate change' is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic...

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Cloning
In biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a sin...

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Closed-Loop Recycling
Reclaiming or reusing wastewater for non-potable purposes in an enclosed proc...

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Closure
The procedure a landfill operator must follow when a landfill reaches its leg...

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Co-fire
Burning of two fuels in the same combustion unit; e.g., coal and natural gas,...

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Coagulation
Clumping of particles in wastewater to settle out impurities, often induced b...

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Coal Cleaning Technology
A precombustion process by which coal is physically or chemically treated to ...

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Coal Gasification
Conversion of coal to a gaseous product by one of several available technolog...

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Coastal Zone
Lands and waters adjacent to the coast that exert an influence on the uses of...

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Code of Federal Regulations CFR
Document that codifies all rules of the executive departments and agencies of...

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Coefficient of Haze COH
A measurement of visibility interference in the atmosphere.

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Cogeneration
The consecutive generation of useful thermal and electric energy from the sam...

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Coke Oven
An industrial process which converts coal into coke, one of the basic materia...

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Cold Temperature CO
A standard for automobile emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to be m...

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Coliform Index
A rating of the purity of water based on a count of fecal bacteria.

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Coliform Organism
Microorganisms found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Their pre...

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Collector
Public or private hauler that collects nonhazardous waste and recyclable mate...

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Collector Sewers
Pipes used to collect and carry wastewater from individual sources to an inte...

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Colloids
Very small, finely divided solids (that do not dissolve) that remain disperse...

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Combined Sewer Overflows
Discharge of a mixture of storm water and domestic waste when the flow capaci...

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Combined Sewers
A sewer system that carries both sewage and storm-water runoff. Normally, its...

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Combustion
1. Burning, or rapid oxidation, accompanied by release of energy in the form ...

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Combustion Chamber
The actual compartment where waste is burned in an incinerator.

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Combustion Product
Substance produced during the burning or oxidation of a material.

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Command Post
Facility located at a safe distance upwind from an accident site, where the o...

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Command-and-Control Regulations
Specific requirements prescribing how to comply with specific standards defin...

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Comment Period
Time provided for the public to review and comment on a proposed EPA action o...

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Commercial Waste
All solid waste emanating from business establishments such as stores, market...

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Commercial Waste Management Facility
A treatment, storage, disposal, or transfer facility which accepts waste from...

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Commingled Recyclables
Mixed recyclables that are collected together.

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Comminuter
A machine that shreds or pulverizes solids to make waste treatment easier.

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Comminution
Mechanical shredding or pulverizing of waste. Used in both solid waste manage...

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Common Sense Initiative
Voluntary program to simplify environmental regulation to achieve cleaner, ch...

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Community
In ecology, an assemblage of populations of different species within a specif...

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Community Relations
The EPA effort to establish two-way communication with the public to create u...

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Community Water System
A public water system which serves at least 15 service connections used by ye...

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Compact Fluorescent Lamp CFL
Small fluorescent lamps used as more efficient alternatives to incandescent l...

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Compaction
Reduction of the bulk of solid waste by rolling and tamping.

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Comparative Risk Assessment
Process that generally uses the judgement of experts to predict effects and s...

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Complete Treatment
A method of treating water that consists of the addition of coagulant chemica...

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Compliance Coal
Any coal that emits less than 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu wh...

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Compliance Coating
A coating whose volatile organic compound content does not exceed that allowe...

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Compliance Cycle
The 9-year calendar year cycle, beginning January 1, 1993, during which publi...

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Compliance Monitoring
Collection and evaluation of data, including self-monitoring reports, and ver...

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Compliance Schedule
A negotiated agreement between a pollution source and a government agency tha...

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Composite Sample
A series of water samples taken over a given period of time and weighted by f...

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Compost
A humus or soil-like material created from aerobic, microbial decomposition o...

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Composting
The controlled biological decomposition of organic material in the presence o...

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Composting Facilities
1. An offsite facility where the organic component of municipal solid waste i...

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Compressed Natural Gas CNG
An alternative fuel for motor vehicles; considered one of the cleanest becaus...

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Concentration
The relative amount of a substance mixed with another substance. An example i...

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Condensate
1.Liquid formed when warm landfill gas cools as it travels through a collecti...

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Condensate Return System
System that returns the heated water condensing within steam piping to the bo...

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Conditional Registration
Under special circumstances, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodentic...

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Conditionally Exempt Generators CE
Persons or enterprises which produce less than 220 pounds of hazardous waste ...

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Conductance
A rapid method of estimating the dissolved solids content of water supply by ...

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Conductivity
A measure of the ability of a solution to carry an electrical current.

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Cone of Depression
A depression in the water table that develops around a pumped well.

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Cone of Influence
The depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table by the pu...

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Cone Penterometer Testing CPT
A direct push system used to measure lithology based on soil penetration resi...

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Confidential Business Information CBI
Material that contains trade secrets or commercial or financial information t...

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Confidential Statement of Formula CSF
A list of the ingredients in a new pesticide or chemical formulation. The lis...

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Confined Aquifer
An aquifer in which ground water is confined under pressure which is signific...

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Confluent Growth
A continuous bacterial growth covering all or part of the filtration area of ...

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Consent Decree
A legal document, approved by a judge, that formalizes an agreement reached b...

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Conservation
Preserving and renewing, when possible, human and natural resources. The use,...

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Conservation Easement
Easement restricting a landowner to land uses that that are compatible with l...

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Constituent of Concern
Specific chemicals that are identified for evaluation in the site assessment ...

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Construction and Demolition Waste
Waste building materials, dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble resulti...

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Construction Ban
If, under the Clean Air Act, EPA disapproves an area's planning requirements ...

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Consumptive Water Use
Water removed from available supplies without return to a water resources sys...

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Contact Pesticide
A chemical that kills pests when it touches them, instead of by ingestion. Al...

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Contaminant
Any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter that ...

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Contamination
Introduction into water, air, and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic su...

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Contamination Source Inventory
An inventory of contaminant sources within delineated State Water-Protection ...

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Contingency Plan
A document setting out an organized, planned, and coordinated course of actio...

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Continuous Discharge
A routine release to the environment that occurs without interruption, except...

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Continuous Sample
A flow of water, waste or other material from a particular place in a plant t...

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Contour Plowing
Soil tilling method that follows the shape of the land to discourage erosion.

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Contour Strip Farming
A kind of contour farming in which row crops are planted in strips, between a...

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Contract Labs
Laboratories under contract to EPA, which analyze samples taken from waste, s...

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Control Technique Guidelines
EPA documents designed to assist state and local pollution authorities to ach...

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Controlled Reaction
A chemical reaction under temperature and pressure conditions maintained with...

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Conventional Pollutants
Statutorily listed pollutants understood well by scientists. These may be in ...

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Conventional Site Assessment
Assessment in which most of the sample analysis and interpretation of data is...

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Conventional Systems
Systems that have been traditionally used to collect municipal wastewater in ...

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Conventional Tilling
Tillage operations considered standard for a specific location and crop and t...

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Conveyance Loss
Water loss in pipes, channels, conduits, ditches by leakage or evaporation.

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Cooling Electricity Use
Amount of electricity used to meet the building cooling load.

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Cooling Tower
A structure that helps remove heat from water used as a coolant; e.g., in ele...

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Cooperative Agreement
An assistance agreement whereby EPA transfers money, property, services or an...

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Core
The uranium-containing heart of a nuclear reactor, where energy is released.

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Core Program Cooperative Agreement
An assistance agreement whereby EPA supports states or tribal governments wit...

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Corrective Action
EPA can require treatment, storage and disposal (TSDF) facilities handling ha...

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Corrosion
The dissolution and wearing away of metal caused by a chemical reaction such ...

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Corrosive
A chemical agent that reacts with the surface of a material causing it to det...

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Cost Recovery
A legal process by which potentially responsible parties who contributed to c...

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Cost Sharing
A publicly financed program through which society, as a beneficiary of enviro...

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Cost-Benefit Analysis
A quantitative evaluation of the costs which would have incurred by implement...

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Cost-Effective Alternative
An alternative control or corrective method identified after analysis as bein...

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Cover Crop
A crop that provides temporary protection for delicate seedlings and/or provi...

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Cover Material
Soil used to cover compacted solid waste in a sanitary landfill.

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Cradle-to-Grave or Manifest System
A procedure in which hazardous materials are identified and followed as they ...

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Criteria
Descriptive factors taken into account by EPA in setting standards for variou...

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Criteria Pollutants
The 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act required EPA to set National Ambient...

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Critical Effect
The first adverse effect, or its known precursor, that occurs as a dose rate ...

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Crop Consumptive Use
The amount of water transpired during plant growth plus what evaporated from ...

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Crop Rotation
Planting a succession of different crops on the same land rea as opposed to p...

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Cross Contamination
The movement of underground contaminants from one level or area to another du...

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Cross-Connection
Any actual or potential connection between a drinking water system and an una...

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Crumb Rubber
Ground rubber fragments the size of sand or silt used in rubber or plastic pr...

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Cryptosporidium
A protozoan microbe associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in man. The...

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Cubic Feet Per Minute CFM
A measure of the volume of a substance flowing through air within a fixed per...

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Cullet
Crushed glass.

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Cultural Eutrophication
Increasing rate at which water bodies "die" by pollution from human activities.

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Cultures and Stocks
Infectious agents and associated biologicals including cultures from medical ...

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Cumulative Ecological Risk Assessment
Consideration of the total ecological risk from multiple stressors to a given...

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Cumulative Exposure
The sum of exposures of an organism to a pollutant over a period of time.

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Cumulative Working Level Months CWLM
The sum of lifetime exposure to radon working levels expressed in total worki...

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Curb Stop
A water service shutoff valve located in a water service pipe near the curb a...

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Curbside Collection
Method of collecting recyclable materials at homes, community districts or bu...

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Cutie-Pie
An instrument used to measure radiation levels.

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Cuttings
Spoils left by conventional drilling with hollow stem auger or rotary drillin...

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Cyclone Collector
A device that uses centrifugal force to remove large particles from polluted ...

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