Laboratory Terms I

A glossary of science, chemistry, environmental and laboratory terms.

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91 results match your search term:  I


Identification Code or EPA ID Number
The unique code assigned to each generator, transporter, and treatment, stora...

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Ignitable
Capable of burning or causing a fire.

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IM240
A high-tech, transient dynamometer automobile emissions test that takes up to...

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Imhoff Cone
A clear, cone-shaped container used to measure the volume of settleable solid...

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Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health IDLH
The maximum level to which a healthy individual can be exposed to a chemical ...

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Imminent Hazard
One that would likely result in unreasonable adverse effects on humans or the...

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Imminent Threat
A high probability that exposure is occurring.

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Immiscibility
The inability of two or more substances or liquids to readily dissolve into o...

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Impermeable
Not easily penetrated. The property of a material or soil that does not allow...

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Imports
Municipal solid waste and recyclables that have been transported to a state o...

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Impoundment
A body of water or sludge confined by a dam, dike, floodgate, or other barrier.

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In Situ
In its original place; unmoved unexcavated; remaining at the site or in the s...

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In Vitro
Testing or action outside an organism (e.g. inside a test tube or culture dish.)

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In Vivo
Testing or action inside an organism.

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In-Line Filtration
Pre-treattment method in which chemicals are mixed by the flowing water; comm...

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In-Situ Flushing
Introduction of large volumes of water, at times supplemented with cleaning c...

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In-Situ Oxidation
Technology that oxidizes contaminants dissolved in ground water, converting t...

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In-Situ Stripping
Treatment system that removes or "strips" volatile organic compounds from con...

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In-Situ Vitrification
Technology that treats contaminated soil in place at extremely high temperatu...

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Incident Command Post
A facility located at a safe distance from an emergency site, where the incid...

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Incident Command System ICS
The organizational arrangement wherein one person, normally the Fire Chief of...

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Incineration
A treatment technology involving destruction of waste by controlled burning a...

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Incineration at Sea
Disposal of waste by burning at sea on specially-designed incinerator ships.

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Incinerator
A furnace for burning waste under controlled conditions.

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Incompatible Waste
A waste unsuitable for mixing with another waste or material because it may r...

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Indemnification
In the pesticide program, legal requirement that EPA pay certain end-users, d...

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Indicator
In biology, any biological entity or processes, or community whose characteri...

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Indirect Discharge
Introduction of pollutants from a non-domestic source into a publicly owned w...

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Indirect Source
Any facility or building, property, road or parking area that attracts motor ...

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Indoor Air
The breathable air inside a habitable structure or conveyance.

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Indoor Air Pollution
Chemical, physical, or biological contaminants in indoor air.

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Indoor Climate
Temperature, humidity, lighting, air flow and noise levels in a habitable str...

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Industrial Pollution Prevention
Combination of industrial source reduction and toxic chemical use substitution.

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Industrial Process Waste
Residues produced during manufacturing operations.

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Industrial Sludge
Semi-liquid residue or slurry remaining from treatment of industrial water an...

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Industrial Source Reduction
Practices that reduce the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or co...

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Industrial Waste
Unwanted materials from an industrial operation; may be liquid, sludge, solid...

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Inert Ingredient
Pesticide components such as solvents, carriers, dispersants, and surfactants...

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Inertial Separator
A device that uses centrifugal force to separate waste particles.

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Infectious Agent
Any organism, such as a pathogenic virus, parasite, or or bacterium, that is ...

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Infectious Waste
Hazardous waste capable of causing infections in humans, including

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Infiltration
1. The penetration of water through the ground surface into sub-surface soil ...

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Infiltration Gallery
A sub-surface groundwater collection system, typically shallow in depth, cons...

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Infiltration Rate
The quantity of water that can enter the soil in a specified time interval.

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Inflow
Entry of extraneous rain water into a sewer system from sources other than in...

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Influent
Water, wastewater, or other liquid flowing into a reservoir, basin, or treatm...

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Information Collection Request ICR
A description of information to be gathered in connection with rules, propose...

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Information File
In the Superfund program, a file that contains accurate, up-to-date documents...

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Inhalable Particles
All dust capable of entering the human respiratory tract.

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Initial Compliance Period
The first full three-year compliance period which begins at least 18 months a...

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Injection Well
A well into which fluids are injected for purposes such as waste disposal, im...

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Injection Zone
A geological formation receiving fluids through a well.

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Innovative Technologies
New or inventive methods to treat effectively hazardous waste and reduce risk...

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Innovative Treatment Technologies
Technologies whose routine use is inhibited by lack of data on performance an...

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Inoculum
1. Bacteria or fungi injected into compost to start biological action. 2. A m...

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Inorganic Chemicals
Chemical substances of mineral origin, not of basically carbon structure.

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Insecticide
A pesticide compound specifically used to kill or prevent the growth of insects.

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Inspection and Maintenance
1. Activities to ensure that vehicles' emission controls work properly. 2. Al...

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Institutional Waste
Waste generated at institutions such as schools, libraries, hospitals, prison...

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Instream Use
Water use taking place within a stream channel; e.g., hydro-electric power ge...

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Integrated Exposure Assessment
Cumulative summation (over time) of the magnitude of exposure to a toxic chem...

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Integrated Pest Management IPM
A mixture of chemical and other, non-pesticide, methods to control pests.

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Integrated Waste Management
Using a variety of practices to handle municipal solid waste; can include sou...

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Interceptor Sewers
Large sewer lines that, in a combined system, control the flow of sewage to t...

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Interface
The common boundary between two substances such as a water and a solid, water...

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Interfacial Tension
The strength of the film separating two immiscible fluids (e.g. oil and water...

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Internal Dose
In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance penetrating the absorption ...

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Interstate Carrier Water Supply
A source of water for drinking and sanitary use on planes, buses, trains, and...

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Interstate Commerce Clause
A clause of the U.S. Constitution which reserves to the federal government th...

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Interstate Waters
Waters that flow across or form part of state or international boundaries; e....

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Interstitial Monitoring
The continuous surveillance of the space between the walls of an underground ...

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Intrastate Product
Pesticide products once registered by states for sale and use only in the sta...

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Inventory TSCA
Inventory of chemicals produced pursuant to Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substa...

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Inversion
A layer of warm air that prevents the rise of cooling air and traps pollutant...

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Ion
An electrically charged atom or group of atoms.

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Ion Exchange Treatment
A common water-softening method often found on a large scale at water purific...

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Ionization Chamber
A device that measures the intensity of ionizing radiation.

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Ionizing Radiation
Radiation that can strip electrons from atoms; e.g. alpha, beta, and gamma ra...

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IRIS
EPA's Integrated Risk Information System, an electronic data base containing ...

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Irradiated Food
Food subject to brief radioactivity, usually gamma rays, to kill insects, bac...

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Irradiation
Exposure to radiation of wavelengths shorter than those of visible light (gam...

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Irreversible Effect
Effect characterized by the inability of the body to partially or fully repai...

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Irrigation
Applying water or wastewater to land areas to supply the water and nutrient n...

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Irrigation Efficiency
The amount of water stored in the crop root zone compared to the amount of ir...

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Irrigation Return Flow
Surface and subsurface water which leaves the field following application of ...

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Irritant
A substance that can cause irritation of the skin, eyes, or respiratory syste...

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Isoconcentration
More than one sample point exhibiting the same isolate concentration.

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Isopleth
The line or area represented by an isoconcentration.

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Isotope
A variation of an element that has the same atomic number of protons but a di...

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Isotope Dilution
Isotopic dilution is a technique to increase the precision and accuracy of ch...

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Isotropy
The condition in which the hydraulic or other properties of an aquifer are th...

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