Lab Science News - Science, chemistry and environmental news from laboratory experts

Posts Tagged ‘Metals’

Heavy Metals (USP<231>) Revisions

Tuesday, April 26th, 2011

New Limits and Procedures for Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceuticals and Dietary Supplements

ICP-MSBy Jeff Grindstaff and Colleen Schroeder

Changes to heavy metals test procedures for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements are under review with new standards set to be in place by mid-2013.4 The intention of the review is to update current analytical testing historically performed using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) <231>. The revisions (USP<232>, USP<233>, and USP<2232>) are designed to set safer limits for public exposure and to reduce the environmental impact of dated methods. Many in the pharmaceutical industry have concerns about the new instrumentation, more stringent requirements, and the associated costs. Nonetheless, the revisions should have a beneficial impact on the industry by significantly improving specificity and analyte recoveries, as well as by yielding overall time savings resulting in safer, higher quality products.

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Proposed plans for UCMR Program

Monday, December 6th, 2010

By Heidi Brayer

UCMR 3At an April 2010 stakeholder’s meeting, the EPA discussed proposed plans for the third phase of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR) program. If approved, approximately 4,800 public water utilities will be required to monitor up to 30 contaminants starting in 2013.

Learn more about UCMR…

Sequential Extraction Procedure

Tuesday, June 1st, 2010

By Pradeep Divvela, Project Chemist, Kelso, WA

ShakerSequential extraction is an analytical process that chemically leaches metals out of soil, sediment and sludge samples. The purpose of sequential “selective” extraction is to mimic the release of the selective metals into solution under various environmental conditions.

One commonly used sequential extraction procedure is designed to partition different trace metals based on their chemical nature.

The sequential extraction process is typically accomplished in four (4) steps using:

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Cadmium Exposure and Testing

Monday, May 3rd, 2010

By Elisabeth Lutanie, Ph.D.Cadmium Exposure and Testing

Cadmium is a transitional metal that can have harmful cumulative effects on the human body. This article explains what cadmium is, where it comes from, how people get exposed to it, and how laboratories can test for it.

What is Cadmium?

Cadmium (Cd, atomic number 48) is a silver- or bluish-white metal in the group 12 of the periodic table. It is usually found with an oxidation state of +2 and combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide). It is also a cumulative poison associated with an array of syndromes such as renal dysfunction, reproductive toxicity, and bone defects. It is classified as a human carcinogen (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer [1], and as a probable human carcinogen (Group B1) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  

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How to Determine Metals Emissions by EPA Method 29

Monday, April 26th, 2010

By Ed Wallace, Project Chemist, Kelso, WAEPA Method 29

EPA Method 29 measures hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from stationary sources for mercury and other metals. The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires all major sources to meet HAP emission standards reflecting the application of maximum achievable control technology (MACT). These sources include industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The other metals to be tested are antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, thallium and zinc.

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RoHS and WEEE Compliance Testing

Tuesday, October 4th, 2005

RoHS WEEE ComplianceWhat is RoHS/WEEE?

In 2003 legislation was introduced in the European Union (EU) to promote the collection, treatment, recycling, and recovery of waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This legislation is known as the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) act and is formally dictated by directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament. A complimentary directive, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS), was also introduced in 2003 given by 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament. Beginning July 1, 2006, RoHS legislation restricts the amounts of lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium (VI), Polybrominated Diphenylethers (PBDEs), and Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs) in electronic and electrical equipment. These chemicals are known to present a risk to human health and the environment. Thus, restrictions are in place that limit the concentration of these constituents in electrical and electronic products and/or components.

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Treatability Study for Heavy Metal Removal from Mine Water

Sunday, July 4th, 2004


Introduction: Historical mining practices in the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (Idaho) have resulted in heavy metal contamination of soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater. Canyon Creek, located in the upper basin, has elevated levels of dissolved zinc (average concentration ~ 3,000 μg/L), dissolved cadmium (average concentration ~ 22 μg/ L), and total lead (average concentration ~ 174 μg/L). Heavy metal loading near the mouth of Canyon Creek is influenced by surface water/groundwater interactions. Dissolved zinc concentrations in the groundwater have been detected in the 100,000 μg/L range while dissolved cadmium and lead have been detected in the hundreds to thousands μg/L ranges, respectively.

EPA’s consultant, URS Corporation (URS), developed a multi-phase treatability study to obtain quantitative information on a treatment process to effectively remove metals from the water of Canyon Creek. The treatment process incorporated different combinations of pH adjustment, chemical coagulation and coprecipitation, polymer flocculent additions, and additions of ballasted micro-sand to improve sludge settling. The results of the study will be used to help evaluate potential treatment technologies for surface water and/or groundwater at Canyon Creek. These data will also be used to help develop the pilotscale treatability study for Phase II of the study.

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