Analytical testing dots

Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. Neodymium, a rare earth metal, is present in Mischmetal to the extent of about 18%. The metal has a bright, silvery metallic luster, however, as one of the more reactive rare earth metals, it quickly tarnishes in air. The tarnishing forms an oxide layer that falls off, which exposes the metal to further oxidation. Although it belongs to "rare earth metals," neodymium is not rare at all. It constitutes 38 ppm of Earth’s crust.


Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60
Chemical series lanthanides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f
Appearance silvery white,
yellowish tinge
Standard atomic weight 144.242(3) g·mol-1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.01 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.89 g·cm−3
Melting point 1297K
(1024°C, 1875°F)
Boiling point 3347K
(3074°C, 5565°F)
Heat of fusion 7.14 kJ·mol-1
Heat of vaporization 289 kJ·mol-1
Heat capacity (25°C) 27.45 J·mol-1·K-1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 1595 1774 1998 (2296) (2715) (3336)
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.14 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: 533.1 kJ·mol-1
2nd: 1040 kJ·mol-1
3rd: 2130 kJ·mol-1
Atomic radius 185 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 206 pm
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 643 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300K) 16.5 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
9.6 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2330 m/s
Young's modulus (α form) 41.4 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 16.3 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 31.8 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.281
Vickers hardness 343 MPa
Brinell hardness 265 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-00-8


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